The LSA is a cumulative monthly publication that lists the titles and sections that have changed and indicates the page on which the change can be found in the Federal Register. If the LSA is not available, the “Reader Aids” section of the Federal Register can be used to determine if any changes occurred during the month. Like the CFR. and FR, the LSA is available on FDSys, . The current and prior editions of the Code of Federal Regulations and the List of CFR Sections Affected are located in closed stacks and available on microform or via FDsys 1996 – present or the subscription database HeinOnline 1938 present for onsite researchers. In addition to issuing rules and regulations, administrative agencies typically have the authority to enforce adjudicate those rules and regulations through hearing and decision making processes. Agency hearing decisions are published in official reporters and in many commercially published sources. Rulings by an administrative law judge or administrative tribunal are available in both print and electronic formats. For example, administrative hearing opinions from the National Labor Relations Board are available in the print sources Decisions and Orders of the National Labor Relations Board Government Printing Office and Labor Relations Reference Manual Bloomberg BNA, and electronically on the National Labor Relations Board website, . For a listing of official and commercial titles of federal agency decisions, see How to Find the Law, Appendix D 9th ed. 1989Call No.
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However, many have argued that the usefulness of these laws is vastly inadequate in terms of controlling government actions, largely because of institutional and systemic obstacles like a weak judiciary, poorly trained judges and lawyers, and corruption. In 1990, the Administrative Supervision Regulations 行政检查条例 and the Administrative Reconsideration Regulations 行政复议条例 were passed. The 1993 State Civil Servant Provisional Regulations 国家公务员暂行条例 changed the way government officials were selected and promoted, requiring that they pass exams and yearly appraisals, and introduced a rotation system. The three regulations have been amended and upgraded into laws. In 1994, the State Compensation Law 国家赔偿法 was passed, followed by the Administrative Penalties Law 行政处罚法 in 1996. Administrative Compulsory Law was enforced in 2012. Administrative Litigation Law was amended in 2014. The General Administrative Procedure Law is under way. In France, most claims against the national or local governments as well as claims against private bodies providing public services are handled by administrative courts, which use the Conseil d'État Council of State as a court of last resort for both ordinary and special courts. The main administrative courts are the tribunaux administratifs and appeal courts are the cours administratives d'appel. Special administrative courts include the National Court of Asylum Right as well as military, medical and judicial disciplinary bodies.